Morley as Chief Secretary for Ireland. The story of his conversion to Home Rule, his failure to convert his colleagues, the split in the Cabinet and the introduction and rejection of the Home Rule Bill of is well told in the series of cartoons which begin with "At the Cross Roads" in February.
There Gladstone is shown hesitating between Land Purchase and Home Rule, while Chamberlain as the cowboy advises the former. In "The Thanes fly from [Pg 45] me" we see Gladstone as Macbeth asking Morley Seyton to give him his armour: "This push will cheer me ever or disseat me now. Labouchere as the "two drolls of the House" at Question time. A little alteration here and there! Britannia : "It's very uncomfortable, and I'm sure it isn't becoming. I shall never get along with it as it is!! On the merits of Home Rule Punch is rather non-committal, and speaks with more than one voice.
The secession of the Liberal Unionists impressed him greatly; but he was bitterly antagonistic to the Ulster extremists, witness this epigram printed in May:—. Lord Randolph Churchill's famous jingle: "Ulster will fight. Ulster will be right," inspired a prophetic forecast of the result of such action, in which Ulster does fight and is defeated:—. The battle had been severe, but it was over at last. Belfast was taken. Derry was in ruins. Everywhere the Orange faction had been outnumbered and worsted. The reverse was crushing and complete. They were a motley crew. Among them figured several wearing the Queen's uniform, while here and there stood some distinguished sympathizer with the beaten cause, who had thrown in his lot to support rebellion against Queen and Empire.
Among these latter a scion of a Ducal House and former well-known Member of the House of Commons, was weeping over a broken drumhead. The General singled him out, and beckoned him to approach. He drew near, surlily: "Well, my Lord," continued the Commander, in a tone of banter. Ulster will fight. Ulster will be right. Ulster has fought. This squib was written before the rejection of the Home Rule Bill, a result which Punch , or the writer, probably did not anticipate. The accuracy of the forecast, however, remains still to be tested. The verses which accompany and expand the cartoon of "The Grand Young Man" with the shade of Dizzy looking on, almost deviate into geniality.
Punch fancies that Randolph, in spite of his defects of taste and manners, is "more than a mere mime," but, in contrasting his career with that of Lord Beaconsfield, points out that he was born in the purple and that his rise to power was easier and quicker. This comparatively friendly mood soon gave way to the old distrust, and by October, in "Swag, or the political Jack Sheppard," we see Lord Randolph, anxious to eclipse Dizzy as a Tory Turpin and "disher" of the Whigs, rifling a chest labelled "Liberal Measures," while Mr.
Gladstone peers into the room at the back. Punch's distrust was partly justified by Lord Randolph's impetuous resignation in December. What might have been a great career was wrecked by an impatient temper. Immense ability, industry, courage and reforming zeal were there, and it was hardly fair to represent him as a modern Curtius leaping into the pit of Popularity. The Treasury was not the only Government Office in which reform was thwarted by obstruction and mismanagement.
Punch attacked the War Office in the autumn of for setting its face "not merely against change, but against experiments pointing to change," and scouting all inventors as nuisances. He simultaneously proposed the foundation of an official organ of the Admiralty to be called "Dowb," the burlesque prospectus of which obliquely satirizes the abuse of perquisites, bad stores, muddled finance, futile commissions of inquiry and general incompetence in high places.
Similar authors to follow
Home politics engrossed attention throughout the year, but Punch did not fail to note the gathering clouds in the Balkans, when Prince Alexander of Battenberg, the hero of Slivnitza, a gallant and picturesque figure, had abdicated the [Pg 48] throne of Bulgaria, Russian jealousy having rendered his position untenable. In the cartoon of "The Vanishing Lady," the Tsar is shown as a juggler using the cloak of diplomacy to extinguish the freedom of the country he had helped to emancipate.
The Victorian age reached its grand climacteric in , the year of the Queen's Golden Jubilee and the gathering of the Kings and Captains. Of the celebrations we speak elsewhere. And so on with praise of the Good Queen and Holy Father, Punch , as a "true freeman unfettered by servile fear or hate's poor purblind heat," being free to celebrate them both.
Gladstone was invited to the celebrations but did not cross the Atlantic. John Bull abounds in professions of good-will, but there is a slight sting in the last chorus:—. The Salisbury Cabinet was strengthened by the inclusion of Mr. Goschen as Chancellor of the Exchequer—Mr. Goschen whom Lord Randolph "forgot," and whom Punch styled the "Emergency man," a phrase now also forgotten, but then applied to the volunteers who assisted boycotted farmers and loyalists in Ireland.
Balfour was at the Irish Office, the scene of his greatest administrative successes, and the Crimes Act and the Land Act were the two principal measures of the Session. In those days The Times was the great champion of the Unionist policy, and in the summer of is shown prodding on Lord Salisbury and Mr.
Balfour, armed with Crimes Act blunderbusses, in their attack on the Land League wild boar. The Land League was "proclaimed" in August; and already the controversy had begun between Mr. Parnell and The Times over the former's alleged participation in the responsibility for the Phoenix Park murders.
The question was raised in a series of articles on "Parnellism and Crime"; but the charges were not made specific until the following year. John Bright's secession from the Gladstonian Liberals had been a serious blow, and his contributions to the Unionist armoury were so vigorous and pointed, that it is rather strange to find Punch assailing him in March, , for his pacificist tendencies:—. John Bright certainly spoke daggers against those who, in his own phrase, kept the rebellion pot always on the boil.
There is an unmistakable reference to Lord Randolph Churchill's treatment of his one-time leader in the verses in which Punch paid homage to a statesman "worn yet selfless, disparaged and dispraised," yet a "pattern of proud but gentle chivalry":—. Here the reference to Lord Randolph is inferential though unmistakable. But an opportunity for having a dig at him is never missed. When the Bulgarian throne was offered to Prince Ferdinand, and his cautious and diplomatic tactics resulted in long delays, Punch in pure malice suggested that the crown should be offered to Lord Randolph.
He may be forgiven, however, in view of the remarkably accurate estimate which he formed of the slyness, timidity and meanness of "Ferdinand the Fox," and the alternations of servility and insolence in his attitude towards Russia. Bismarck again comes in for honorific notice this year in the guise of Sintram, accompanied and menaced by Socialism the Little Master , but confidently riding along on his steed Majority.
But was a momentous year for Germany—the year in which two Kaisers died and a third succeeded to the heritage of the Hohenzollerns. The old Emperor Wilhelm, the " Greise Kaiser ," died on March 9; within a hundred days his son, the " Weise Kaiser ," had fallen to the fatal malady which had sapped his splendid physique, to be succeeded in turn by the " Reise Kaiser ," the nickname bestowed on Wilhelm II for his passion for movement and travel. At the moment of his accession Punch was not inclined to be critical. The cartoon of "The Vigil" in June of that year expresses no misgivings, but only sympathy for one called to bear so heavy a burden.
And this view is amplified in the verses in which the lessons of the past are used to fortify the hopes of the future:—. Only a fortnight before the death of the old Emperor, Bismarck's Army Bill had awakened Punch's misgivings. He reluctantly admired the strength of the lion combined with the shrewdness of the fox; and put into Bismarck's mouth the sonorous couplet:—.
Punch trusts may never apply. For the establishment of the Triple Alliance Punch held Bismarck responsible. The policy is expounded in "a Bismarckian version of an old classical myth. While he is in power it will be all well with Germany. Of Austria he is less certain, owing to the precariousness of her crown, but he counts confidently on Italy, and ends on an optimistic note, dwelling on the pacific aims of this new political pact. It is hard to tell whether this is irony on the part of Punch or a genuine approval of the Triple Alliance.
But there is no doubt of his mistrust of Germany's ulterior motives in undertaking to co-operate with England in suppressing the Slave Trade in Africa—a mistrust expressed in the quatrain:—. The sequel justified the suspicion, and less than a year later Punch published a companion cartoon in which the Lion, coming round the corner, finds the Fox has pulled down the notice "Down with Slavery" and is about to put up a Proclamation in which "Up" takes the place of "Down.
Bismarck's hostility to the Empress Frederick was notorious. In her husband's brief reign there was a question of their daughter, Princess Victoria, marrying Prince Alexander, ex-sovereign of Bulgaria. Punch represented Bismarck forbidding the banns, and putting an extinguisher labelled "Policy" on Cupid. It was stated that Bismarck threatened to resign if the marriage plan were proceeded with; Punch , the sentimentalist, believed that love would find out a way, and it did, but in a different direction.
The Prince married, but the lady was not of royal or even noble birth, and as Count Hartenau he remained in obscurity and died while still a young man. Punch recognized the danger in his cartoon of France ruefully balancing the Cap of Liberty on her finger. But even in L'Audace , where Boulanger is shown climbing up a steep cliff, with "Deputy" at the bottom, "President" and "Dictator" at the top, and the Imperial Eagle peering over the summit—we are made to feel that the climber is not equal to the task.
The conditions are exactly reproduced in the companion picture, "Many a Slip," only that Boulanger is shown rolling down the precipice. New South Wales celebrated her Centenary on January 26, , and Punch added his tribute in a happily-worded greeting under the familiar heading, "Advance, Australia! The same year witnessed the starting of the Australian navy.
Punch saw nothing but healthy rivalry between the different colonies as the outcome of the movement, but looked to Federation as the true means to prevent the different Australian Colonies from being at "Southern Cross-purposes" when they all had their navies. The trouble in the Soudan prompts a warning from the Shade of Gordon: "If you mean to send help, do it thoroughly and do it at once ," but anxiety was allayed by the success of General Grenfell at Suakin, an example of prompt action worthy of the attention of "long-halting statesmen.
Punch made considerable capital out of Mr. Chamberlain's rapprochement to the Tory interests. Joseph Chamberlain at the opening of a School Board in Birmingham, and his acknowledgment of the fact that Voluntary Schools must have their place in the education of the people recognized.
Chamberlain's views on the Liquor question had shown a similar concession to the demands of the brewing trade. So Punch represents the "Artful Joe" walking arm-in-arm with the Archbishop and "Bung," and observing, "What a lot of nice friends I'm making. Chamberlain is already acknowledged to be "incomparably the best debater in the House"; Punch rendered full justice to his ability, but his chief cartoonist, Tenniel, though still capable of splendid work, never managed to seize and reproduce the alert vivacity of Mr.
Chamberlain's features. The progress of the controversy between Mr. The latter method of procedure, however, was adopted. The course of the inquiry was followed by Punch in a series of articles, and when Parnell was exculpated on the chief count by the breakdown of The Times witness Pigott, who confessed to forgery, fled the country and committed suicide, Punch exhibited the Clock-face doing penance in a white sheet with the lines, "His honour rooted in dishonour stood, etc. England was visited in by two of the most perturbing personalities in European politics, the Kaiser Wilhelm II and General Boulanger.
But Boulanger was already ended, though his death, by his own hand, did not take place till the autumn of His histrionic equipment was perfect, and the French, though the most logical of people, are often carried away by their theatrical sense. He had served with some distinction in the army, and he was a fine figure on a horse. The Kaiser's visit to attend the Naval Review at Spithead is treated in a somewhat jocular and cavalier spirit in the cartoon, "Visiting Grandmamma":—.
Grandma Victoria : "Now, Willie dear, you've plenty of soldiers at home; look at these pretty ships —I'm sure you'll be pleased with them! The Kaiser is shown with a toy spade making sand castles for his soldiers. Yet these soldiers were giving ground for [Pg 59] anxiety—witness the cartoon in January on the armed peace of Europe with Peace holding out the olive in one hand, with the other on a sword hilt.
The inevitable verses allude to the "truculent Kaiser" and evince mistrust of one who comes in such equivocal guise. Punch credited Bismarck with exerting a restraining influence on the warlike activities of the Triple Alliance. He showed him in the spring playing Orpheus to this Cerberus, and lulling it to sleep. But the Kaiser inspired no such confidence, and at the close of the year he is shown posing as a peacemaker but preparing for war—fondling the dove on his hand, while behind is the eagle, with bayonets for feathers, feeding on the Army estimates.
On the occasion of the International Anti-Slavery Congress at Brussels in November, , Punch , while very properly applauding the occasion as tending to the overthrow of "the demon of the shackle and the scourge," acclaimed Leopold II as a "magnanimous King. Punch , like other critics, was happier in dealing with the dead than the living, and the death of John Bright in March inspired a generous though discriminating tribute to the memory and achievements of "Mercy's sworn militant, great Paladin of Peace":—.
These memorial verses, however, if I may say so without incurring the charge of unfilial disrespect—suffer throughout this period from prolixity. The writer says excellently, but diffusely, in ninety lines what is summed up in the majestic quatrain of Scott which stands at their head:—. Gladstone's golden-wedding day in July furnished the [Pg 61] theme for friendly and affectionate congratulations to a couple who stood for "Darby and Joan" in excelsis. Gladstone's domestic happiness was unclouded, but he was subjected to a painful ordeal in by the disclosures of the Parnell-O'Shea divorce case and the split in the Irish Party which followed.
Punch supported Gladstone in his breach with the Irish leader. He is shown in one cartoon refusing to give his hand to Parnell:—. Gladstone is acquitted of "mere Pharisaic scorn. The further developments of the struggle are shown in an adaptation of Meissonier's famous "La Rixe," in which Parnell is held back by Dillon and O'Brien from Healy, who is restrained by Justin McCarthy. Parnell's sun was setting in gloom and storm, but a greater than Parnell was passing from the stage of high politics in For this was the year of the dismissal of Bismarck by the Kaiser, commemorated in the issue of March 29 by Tenniel's famous "Dropping the Pilot" cartoon.
Punch saw no good in the change; he indulges in ominous speculations. Was Bismarck animated by faith or fear of the future in quitting his post? Would the new Pilot strike on sunken shoals or "wish on the wild main, the old Pilot back again"? The Kaiser's gifts are seen to be no solace for the wound of dismissal. As a matter of fact, Bismarck never used the ducal title of Lauenburg conferred on him.
In little more than a month the Kaiser is shown as the Enfant Terrible of Europe, "rocking the boat," while France, Italy, Austria and Spain all appeal to him to be more careful and not tempt fate. The Kaiser's dabbling in industrial problems, in the hope of propping his rule by concessions to Socialism, meets with no sympathy.
But a more serious ground for discontent arose over the cession of [Pg 63] Heligoland. Punch waxes indignantly sarcastic over Lord Salisbury's deal in East Africa by which Germany gained Heligoland as a bonus. It was "given away with a pound of tea"; Salisbury's weakness was worse than Gladstone's scuttle and surrender, and Punch ruefully recalls the verses he printed nineteen years earlier:—. On June 24, , Mr. But the fashionable world went on its way unheeding. Du Maurier satirized this indifference in a picture in which one lady asks another: " Where is this Heligoland they're all talking so much about?
It's one of the places lately discovered by Mr. Russia, it may be added, also incurred Punch's censure in , the legalized persecution of Jews forming the theme of a prophetic cartoon in August, in which the shade of Pharaoh warns the Tsar, as he stands with a drawn sword and his foot on a prostrate Hebrew: "Forbear! That weapon always wounds the hand that wields it. In the new "orientations" of the European Powers attract a good deal of notice. The Franco-Russian entente is symbolized by the Bear making France dance to the tune of the Russian loan.
Punch's distrust of Russia—semi-Asiatic and half-Tartar—dated from the 'forties. The tightening of the Franco-Russian Entente in gave him no pleasure. He quotes with manifest approval the comment of a daily paper on the infatuation of France:—. The success of a Russian Loan is not dearly purchased by a little effusion, which, after all, commits Russia to nothing.
French sentiment is always worth cultivating in that way, because unlike the British variety, it has a distinct influence upon investments. The cartoon of President Carnot embracing, and being hugged by, the Bear was founded on an episode at Aix-les-Bains where he kissed a little girl in Russian dress who gave him a bouquet, saying: "J'embrasse la Russie. Russia's religious intolerance again comes in for strong condemnation. The Tsar is shown wielding the knout on an aged Jew while the Emperor of China greets a Christian priest.
This contrast was based on the issue of a decree in which the Chinese Government condemned anti-Christian excesses. In another cartoon the Tsar bids his minions remove another aged Jew on the familiar ground that Jews were always to the fore in Nihilist plots. The European Powers, it should be added, were not satisfied by China's official tolerance. The treatment of foreigners had provoked a collective protest, from which Russia abstained. So when John Bull, as a sailor, asks Russia to take a hand in controlling the Chinese Dragon, Russia replies: "Well, I don't know—you see, he's a sort of relation of mine!
The admiration which Punch had so often if reluctantly expressed for Bismarck in office yielded to something like disgust at his undignified bitterness in retirement, above all at his use of the "reptile press" as a means of attacking the Imperial policy and Caprivi, his successor as Chancellor. This feeling animates the "Coriolanus" cartoon in February, where Bismarck is shown with the Hamburger Nachrichten in his hand.
The death of Moltke a couple of months later is duly recorded in a versified tribute making all the usual points—on his taciturnity, composure, foresight and strategy. With his death Bismarck became the lonely survivor of "the Titanic three, Who led the Eagles on to Victory. It was otherwise with Parnell who at forty-five fell,. Punch notes his coldness, his impassive persistence as an agitator, but says nothing of the ill-concealed contempt he showed for his followers, and the entire lack of geniality, bonhomie , and humour, which partly explained the mercilessness with which he was pursued once his power was shaken.
As he had never won or tried to win their affection, he could not expect to find magnanimity in mean souls. The wheels of the Parliamentary chariot drove heavily over the Land Purchase Bill. Punch showed Mr. Balfour leading the poor tired little Bill through a maze of amendments. A propos of its complicated nature and endless, obscure sub-sections, which aroused much hostile criticism in The Times , Mr. Balfour is made to say:—. The Times , too, may gird, and declare 'tis absurd not to know one's own Labyrinth better;. The Times is my friend, but a trifle too fond of the goad and the scourge and the fetter.
This, of course, was in the days when The Times was ultra-Unionist. However, the Bill finally passed through its various stages, and Mr. Smith exhibits it with the fruits of the Session in June, , as a gigantic strawberry. The choice of this particular fruit as a symbol was dictated by the fact that both he and Lord Salisbury had exhibited strawberries at the Horticultural Show. The relations of Canada with England and the United States provoked much discussion in Punch expressed confidence in Canada's loyalty, and simultaneously published a burlesque "Canadian Calendar to be hoped not prophetic ," foretelling complete absorption in the United States.
It begins with Reciprocity with the U. On the death of the Canadian premier, Sir John Macdonald, "old To-morrow" as he was nicknamed from his habit of procrastination, Punch overlooked the thrasonical magniloquence criticized in an earlier poem, and only dwelt on his long services to the Dominion. Earlier in the year Punch had typified the Federation of the Australian Colonies in a boating cartoon, the British Lion from the bank applauding a racing eight, manned by cubs and coxed by a kangaroo, and bidding them swing together.
On the death of the old Duke of Devonshire at the close of , and the accession of Lord Hartington to the title, Mr. Chamberlain became leader of the Liberal-Unionists in the Commons. Chamberlain, in spite of the rapprochement already noted, was still looked upon in some quarters as a somewhat dangerous Radical, and in January, , Punch represented the clock-faced Times lecturing him on his responsibilities. Balfour succeeded Mr. Smith on the death of that unselfish, honest and capable statesman, as Leader of the House of Commons. The shades of Dizzy and Pam are friendly in the cartoon which records the promotion; slightly anxious on the score of Mr.
Balfour's youth—he was then forty-four—but on the whole inclined to think that he will do. Parliament was dissolved in June, the Liberals were returned at the Elections, and the new House met on the now ominous date of August 4. In the 'seventies Punch , as we have seen, was decidedly non-interventionist.
By the middle 'eighties he found it harder to preserve a middle course between the extremes of Jingoism and Pacificism, though he bestows impartial ridicule on both "Scuttle and Grab" in his burlesque forecast of the alternate foreign policies of the ultra-Imperialists and the ultra-Radicals. This was published early in , when the Liberals were in power, and though deliberately fantastical and even [Pg 67] farcical, shows how the wildest anticipations are sometimes verified by fact. Four periods are chosen. In the Grab Party inaugurate a forward policy all round by spending fifty millions upon the Army and Fleet, and are turned out by John Bull when it is found that their schemes involve:—.
The seizure of sixteen islands, conquest of five native races, absorption of fifty thousand square miles of—useless—new territory, seven small wars, two large ones, four massacres, and an Income-tax of five shillings in the pound. Finishes off all wars by caving in all round, retiring everywhere and relinquishing everything. Cuts down Army, and resolves to sell half the Ironclad Fleet as old metal. Power which buys it immediately utilizes it against us. Another Fleet has to be ordered at once at fancy prices in response to Press clamour. Scuttle Party, in cleft stick, halts between two opinions; in pursuit of peace is found fighting all over the world, and after frantic efforts at economy, runs up Income-tax to six shillings in the pound.
John Bull turns out Scuttle Party. Then we jump to A. Finally in his last forecast Punch is reduced to solving the problem by an insurrection under a popular soap-boiler, the seizure of the leaders of the two parties, and the banishing of both "Scuttle" and "Grab" from the political dictionary. With the return of the Conservatives to power, we find that Punch , so far from rebuking the Government for their expenditure on bloated armaments, develops into something like an alarmist on the subject of national preparedness and the folly of "cheap defences.
The bursting of big naval guns, the badness of munitions and designs for battleships are dealt with in bitter satirical verses: while the damaging report of the Parliamentary Committee on Army equipment and stores prompts a series of advertisements of the "Benevolent [Pg 68] Bayonet," the "Blazing Breech-loader," the "Comic Cartridge," and so on. Dishonest contractors and incompetent officials are attacked as "the Vultures of Trade" and "the Vermin of Office and Mart. Punch was not generous or just in representing the Duke of Cambridge as a mere obstructive; and the sequel has not verified his forecast.
Wimbledon Common remains a great playground of the people, and the annual meetings of the National Rifle Association, held at Wimbledon from to , have not suffered in prestige or value since the move to Bisley in References to the inadequate state of the national defences reach their highest frequency in We have the duel between Lord Randolph Churchill preaching retrenchment and Lord Charles Beresford advocating expenditure on an increased Navy. This is followed up by Punch's "Alarmist Alphabet" dedicated to our naval and military experts, to whose warnings our rulers attach no particular importance:—.
Simultaneously Britannia figures in a cartoon as the "Unprotected Female" surrounded by a litter of burst guns, broken contracts, broken blades, unfinished ships, etc. Then we find Punch suddenly appearing at Downing Street at "the first meeting of the Inner Cabinet," and shattering the complacent satisfaction of the Premier and the War Secretary by a peremptory and menacing demand for speeding-up in the supply of rifles and more energetic recruiting.
In July, under the heading of " Punch's Parallels," the tercentenary of the Armada is celebrated in a satiric perversion of the famous game of bowls into "a nice little game of Ducks and Drakes—with the public money," in which Lord George Hamilton, the First Lord of the Admiralty, is attacked as a lethargic aristocrat. Another cartoon shows Moltke rebuking the Duke of Cambridge for persistently discouraging the volunteer movement; while the enforced expense of life in the regular army is condemned in "The Pleasant Way of Glory.
Such criticisms are not unfamiliar even to-day, for the old traditions die hard. On the general question of national and especially naval defence, Punch was not by any means a voice crying in the wilderness. Public opinion had been worked up by other powerful advocates, amongst whom Punch rightly mentions Mr. The debate on the Address in the session of was prolonged and acrimonious. The measure, of course, met with some opposition from various quarters, but public opinion was manifestly in its favour, and it received the Royal Assent before the end of May.
Throughout this campaign it is interesting to note how the personality of the German Emperor obtrudes itself as a disquieting factor in the international race in armaments. At the close of a lady with alleged abnormal "magnetic" power was giving performances at the Alhambra, and Punch adapts the incident in a cartoon suggested by the Kaiser's dictum —inscribed in the Visitors' Book of the City Council at Munich— Suprema Lex Regis Voluntas.
It was about the same time that he described Lord Salisbury as "prostrating his intellect to Lord Beaconsfield in hope of a succession that might never come. But he inspired an immortal comment from a sympathetic compatriot, who calling to inquire about the Major's progress during a serious illness, was told that he was being kept up by periodic teaspoonfuls of brandy. In the preceding volume I endeavoured to trace and account for the waning of Punch's reforming zeal and democratic ardour, and to illustrate his gradual movement from Left to Right Centre in the 'fifties, 'sixties, and early 'seventies.
Many abuses had been remedied, the barriers of class privilege had been broken down, the cleavage between the "Two Nations" was less glaring, national prosperity had increased, the ladder of learning had been set up by Forster's Education Act. Free Trade and Gladstonian finance had eased the burden of the working man and the taxpayer. England was not a Utopia, but she had travelled far from the days of the Hungry 'Forties.
In December, , the late Sir Robert Giffen, one of the most trustworthy and deservedly respected of the much abused tribe of statisticians, published a comparative table of the consumption of the agricultural labourer in and Punch's comment takes the form of an imaginary letter from a farm hand under the heading of "Food and Figures":—. Squire Giffen, a-spoutin' tother night about I and we country folk, stuck to it that we wur better fed nowadays than we wur forty-one year ago; and them as 'eard 'im say that there, they up and swore as how we wur a grumblin', cantankerous, discontented, set o' chaps as didn't knaw naught of our own jolly good luck.
Now look 'ee 'ere, Maister Punch ; 'ere be Squire Giffen's figures. Says he that forty-one year ago, that be in , I eat this 'ere in the first column, say in about a couple o' weeks, and that now I gets through this 'ere, wot he's set down in the second, in the same matter o' time. Intelligent Working Man : "Arbitration! Ca' that arbitration!
Why, they've given it against us! In the [Pg 74] 'forties Punch had recognized that the legitimate grievances of the underfed masses were a real danger. He now recognized, or at any rate implied, that when well-fed they might become equally dangerous under the guidance of extremists. He still believed that there was a great fund of inert anti-revolutionary sentiment amongst the rank and file of the people, but long before the days of "direct action," was alive to the possibilities inherent in the oligarchical rule of Trade Unionism.
He saw that a well-organized minority in a key industry might dislocate the whole fabric of production, and when in the miners attempted to restrict output in order to keep up the price of coal and the rate of wages, addressed the following remonstrance to Mr. Macdonald, the mining M. Towards the close of the 'seventies industrial distress was so general that in January, , Punch abandoned his critical attitude and appealed for united effort and a cessation of party strife to drive the wolf from the door. The "New Charity" that he recommended was a voluntary curtailment of the luxuries of the rich—balls, entertainments, dinners, and theatre parties, the purchase of jewels, wines, etc.
This involved a surrender of his old argument in favour of the production of luxuries on the ground that they provided lucrative employment. At the same time, the terrorism applied to non-Unionists by the "Rebecca" gangs in Durham moved him to vigorous protest, and in the verses on "blacklegs" in April he writes:—. Spirit of Anarchy : "What! No work! Come and enlist with me—I'll find work for you!! Henry George's Progress and Poverty , which attained a wide circulation in , comes in for a good deal of hostile criticism.
It was an epoch-making book; and though, as water to wine when compared to the strong drink of modern anti-capitalistic literature, it was thought worthy of serious attention by Punch. Punch , who reminds us that Mr. Labouchere called the author "George the Fifth," admits that gross inequalities existed, but saw no remedy in Henry [Pg 76] George's policy, which he regarded as wholesale robbery, and in "St. George and the Dragon" ranked the American author along with Proudhon, the author of the saying "Property is Theft. Because the dangerous, scavenged time machine horribly mutated everyone who used it but the Doctor, the machine scrambled its users' genetic code.
Upon returning to 27th century Mars, the Doctor blew up the time machine to prevent anyone else from fiddling with it, and caused the time assassins connected to the time machine in London to disappear. Intending to take Martha to the Medusa Cascade , the Doctor found himself trapped in an abandoned mansion, where he faced illusions of his past.
However, he managed to overcome his worst fears and saved Martha from hers. They arrived there to save the Tiermann family, but due to the intelligence at the heart of the Dreamhome , the Domini, being possessive of the family, they could only save Solin. They then chased the Voracious Craw off Tiermann's World by using a copy of the alien's species to scare it off the planet before it could finish consuming it. After leaving Gelezen, the Doctor and Martha visited Fraxinos , where they met Natalie Sharrocks , who was on the run from the Chelonian.
Investigating, the Doctor was led to a company called the Body Bank , which allowed the aged to regain youth via mind transference. Undercover as a health inspector, he learnt an entity had taken Natalie's body whilst she was at the clinic to destroy a Chelonian breeding planet. The entity took control of another patient, who later died of a heart attack, killing the entity and saving Natalie from Chelonian retribution.
The Doctor and Martha visited the Great Solar Shield , which was used to partially block sunlight from 21st century Earth to ease the effect of global warming. A race called the Silhouettes began leeching energy from the Shield and its crew. The colour in Martha's shirt scared off the Silhouettes, who instead began heading for Earth. The Doctor realigned the Shield's prismatic mirrors to refract a rainbow towards the Silhouettes, scaring them off. The Doctor shows Martha his fob watch, telling her that he is going to become human.
TV : Human Nature. The Doctor and Martha found themselves being pursued by the Family of Blood , who wanted his Time Lord body to achieve a form of immortality as they had a limited lifespan.
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TV : Human Nature Rather than confront them directly, the Doctor, out of mercy, chose to hide from them instead, to save them from his fury. TV : The Family of Blood. He used a Chameleon Arch to transform himself into a human school teacher named John Smith in England , completely repressing his Time Lord self, and sending Martha undercover as his maid to protect the Arch, as his alter ego would have no recollection of the Doctor, only dreams of his adventures.
However, John Smith fell in love with the matron of the school, Joan Redfern , TV : Human Nature and initially refused to change back as he had adapted to a normal life and had foreseen a bright future with Joan, but decided to allow the Doctor to retake his Time Lord body so he could stop the Family from killing anyone else. Haunted by all the death and destruction his act of mercy had caused, the Doctor gave the Family their immortality, with ironic punishments: he trapped Father of Mine in chains forged in a dwarf star, imprisoned Mother of Mine in the event horizon of a collapsing galaxy, suspended Son of Mine in time as a scarecrow and trapped Daughter of Mine in every mirror in existence.
He asked Joan to travel with him, telling her that he was capable of all the things John Smith had been, but she refused, knowing that John and the Doctor were no longer the same person. During a trip to a supermarket , the Doctor and Martha encountered a rampaging warrior called Thaur , one of three warrior kings separated, banished and exiled from Norsum by a goddess called Angboda. During a scuffle, Martha caught Thaur's necklace , a crystal and his only link with his homeworld. Looking into the crystal, the Doctor saw a fleet of war-craft under construction, commanded by Angboda in order to attack civilisations across the galaxy.
The Doctor and Martha located Vulsturg the Vast , Thaur's fellow warrior king, imprisoned on a planetoid. When they tried to free him, slimy green flying creatures emitted a deafening scream. Reversing the sonic field of three hearing aids, the Doctor blocked the sound and rescued Vulsturg. When a large beast tried to stop their escape, the Doctor attached the three hearing aids to each of its three ears then soniced them back to a normal setting.
The beast was overcome by the amplified screaming and fell unconscious. They travelled to a prison on Haklok , only to find the place littered with bodies, including those of robo-sassins, which had been sent to stop the group from finding the warrior kings. Looking into Thour's crystal, the Doctor realised that Angboda's fleet were in fact hospital ships travelling to help the worlds that Thour and his two fellow warriors had attacked. Having been tricked by Thour, the Doctor and Martha were left behind as the three warriors stole the battle cruiser and set off to avenge themselves against Angboda.
With no weapons to use, the Doctor, Martha and Angboda instead jettisoned everything in the ship's cargo bay, creating a reflective barrier with Thour's laser that heavily damaged his ship and caused it to crash onto a barren asteroid, leaving the three warrior kings stranded and powerless. Responding to a distress call from Professor Dinsdale of the Interplanetary Archaeological Institute on Brendock Seven, the Doctor discovered Dinsdale's team had been killed trying to open an ancient burial mound.
The Doctor managed to bypass the door's sonic disruptor, and found the Vortex Cannon, a weapon capable of universal catastrophe, created by an ancient and long-dead civilisation. To his horror, the Doctor unmasked Dinsdale as a shape-changing Zaan Warrior, and the Zaan escaped with the Cannon, only to be destroyed by the guardians of the burial mound. The Zaan commander survived and escaped in an escape pod. Knowing that Treed Crystals that powered the Cannons were found only on the planet Garvrath, the Doctor and Martha set off in pursuit of the Zaan commander.
They contacted her and discovered the Treed Crystal locked in her safe, but stolen by Jebelex the Pulthasian using a matter transmuter. As the Zaan arrived, Jebelex tricked them into thinking he had chucked the crystal to Martha and escaped in his ship. Using the matter transmuter, the Doctor and Martha went off in pursuit of the crystal, following a trail of Jebelex' DNA. Tracking Jebelex, the Doctor and Martha arrived on Karaten , where the Doctor was thrown into a living water entity by the hostile villagers, where the Doctor found the skeleton of Jebelex, and the Treed Crystal.
On the Doctor's instructions, Martha used Jebelex's matter transmuter to turn liquid into a solid, freeing the Doctor and allowing him to destroy the entity. With the crystal in his possessions, the Zaan arrived and kidnapped Martha, threatening to kill her unless the Doctor delivered the crystal to their homeworld. After chasing the Zaan across space, the Doctor discovered the crystal was actually a trap.
He freed Martha and tricked the Zaan into using the crystal, trapping the Zaan and their homeworld in a time-loop for eternity, although he did feel a sense of guilt for what he had done. On another trip, the Doctor stopped a swamp monster from attacking a colony on Sunday by tricking it into possessing him and, using a new protein - RNA mix, destroyed the creature.
When the Skith discovered they were not the first to discover Earth, they deemed their expedition a failure, and began to use their spaceship Oppressor One to freeze the Earth and convert any remaining lifeforms below into Skithself. With Shackleton's help, the Doctor destroyed the ship by sending it into the sun.
Having anticipated its disappearance, they were approached by a Talithan swindler called Pholonius Ginn, who planned to sell the wonders on g-Bay. All three were teleported to the deep space station headquarters of the FatKat Corporation, an auction for planet Earth and all inhabitants born in the Humanian period. Ginn bought Earth, but the Doctor distrupted the deal as Ginn had bought control of every inhabitant of Earth - except Martha, which subsequently ruined his business deal.
Afterwards, the Doctor returned the Seven Wonders to their original positions. The Doctor and Martha next became caught up in a decade-long alien war and discovered the guns used in the war placed the target in suspended animation rather than killed them.
The Doctor stopped one of the last survivors, Elphon , from slaughtering everyone involved in the war in a desperate act to end the raging conflict. He brought the two warring species together and freed the hundreds of warriors that had been suspended. After watching the Beatles in s Liverpool , Martha was kidnapped. Intrigued, the Doctor traced her to Gelezen , a planet that was isolated from the rest of the universe thousands of years ago.
Breaking the time field around Gelezen, the Doctor stopped the Gelezens from taking Martha's human DNA to survive, instead giving them his own genes to ensure they had a long future. The Doctor asked Martha to wait at a coffee shop while he searched a town centre to trace the source of an etheric beam. When the signal disappeared, he returned to Martha, believing it "must have been a blip. The Doctor and Martha travelled back in time to the creation of Stonehenge to figure out why it was there.
The Doctor found it fun but not very instructive. While on an adventure to stop "four things and a lizard" during a "migration", the Doctor met Sally Sparrow , who gave him a folder of information, telling him that it would be vital to him in the future. TV : Blink. The Doctor and Martha clashed with a Ch'otterai that created a world of fiction from Martha's mind.
The Doctor warns Sally about the angels. The Doctor and Martha were transported back in time to by the Weeping Angels while investigating strange disappearances at Wester Drumlins in While wandering the jungle on a planet he assumed had no intelligent life, the Doctor discovered a face carved into a tree that told him that the environment collapsed, causing one hundred years of acid rain, dissolving the planet's people and their civilisation, somehow making them into a collective mind that was part of the planet for millions of years.
Because they had run out of stories, the world intended to make the Doctor and Martha join them as they had new stories to tell. Before they could leave, they and the crew were transported to the oceanworld of Surobos , where they were sentenced to death by the Suroban. Seeking peace and respite, the Doctor took Martha to an icy alien city called Isqaron , where they discovered the city was melting and that the population believed it was the work of a god called Asharoth.
Empress Tamil believed the Doctor to be an escaped slave of Asharoth and had him thrown through a dimension gateway. The Doctor found himself deposited on Earth, where he learnt a group of scientists, led by Professor Milligan were using Isqaron as air conditioning for Earth, pumping hot polluted air to Isqar and sucking cold pure air back.
The Doctor convinced scientist Kate Curran of the dangers they were doing and destroyed Malligan's work with her help. He and Kate then flew through the gateway in a helicopter and saved Martha and the city. On Lumana , the Doctor and Martha were enlisted into protecting the Loomish from the reptilian Slaken. Martha tricked the Loomish into thinking one of their family members were in danger, and she and the Doctor quickly escaped in the TARDIS when the Loomish briefly left the ship.
The Doctor and Martha landed at Research Base Truro , where they found the dead bodies of aliens after something "terrible" had happened. Unknown to them, the aliens had killed each other after assuming the Doctor was among them following the death of Kraarn of the Kraagaaron in an electrical accident. After detecting an inexplicable power source, the Doctor and Martha travelled to Zetheda , only to discover the whole planet to be overflow with un-recycled waste. The distress beacon also attracted the attention of the Optimi, a race of evolving humans who wanted to colonise the "paradise" world of Zethenda and destroy the Ratlings.
Escaping, the Doctor, Martha and the Ratlings activated a terraforming device hidden underground that created a paradise landscape. In the end, the Ratlings and Optimi came to a compromise: the Ratlings would inhabit the wastelands, whilst the Optimi would live in the paradise they had been searching for. The Doctor received a distress signal which led him and Martha back to New Earth , which had been invaded by an alliance of Cybermen and Judoon. The Doctor and Martha enjoy a Christmas meal. Spending Christmas with them, the Doctor learnt Jimmy had fallen under the control of another Klytode , who wanted to use Jimmy's new ecopower station to unleash the Prime Klytode onto Earth.
He succeeded and Klytodes began invading London. Refusing to allow Bert to sacrifice himself, the Doctor reversed the hyperspatial link that brought the Klytode to Earth, sending the Prime Klytode and his army back to where they originated. An energy stream from a distress beacon forced the TARDIS down to a planet, where a girl called Cora had been attacked in the woods by a beast.
After returning Cora to the village, Martha discovered the villagers had similar bite marks on them and were anaemic. The bio-mechanical beast, Viktor , tried taking both the Doctor and Martha to the Thane 's castle, but Gideon freed the Doctor. The Doctor and Gideon came to the castle where they found a neuropathic generator was pacifying the Khamirae villagers.
Martha tried and failed to warn the Doctor against destroying the generator. When he did this, Gideon and the rest of the villagers began transforming into bestial forms. When the Doctor knocked out Gideon, he realised that the Thane and Viktor were using DNA samples from the villagers to extend the Thane's lifespan so they could continue watching over them after repeated cloning of the Thane degraded his pattern. The Doctor, aided by Viktor, repaired the generator by routing power through the Thane's distress beacon, but Viktor died protecting the Doctor from the attacking Khamirae.
The Doctor suggested to the Thane to lower the output of the generator every so often so the Khamirae could control their transformations. The Thane refused to clone himself any further and decided to spend the remainder of his life letting the Khamirae come to terms with who they truly were. Another trip brought the Doctor to Snowglobe 7 in There, he was forced to commit genocide by destroying the Gappa race to keep humanity safe from them.
Info from The Story of Martha needs to be added. On another refuelling trip to Cardiff , the Doctor caught a glimpse of his immortal former companion, Jack Harkness. The Doctor, Martha and Jack. TV : Utopia. On Malcassairo , which populated the last of humanity, the Doctor had a tense reunion with Jack. Whilst investigating the planet, they saved a human from being hunted by cannibalistic humanoids called the Futurekind.
Fleeing the Futurekind, the trio entered the Silo , the asylum of the last survivors of the universe and the launching point for the most ambitious trip in history: Utopia , supposedly a haven beyond the collapse of reality. Restoring his Time Lord consciousness out of curiosity from Martha's questions about his watch, Yana became the Master again, and killed Yana's assistant, Chantho , but not before she was able to shoot him.
Facing imminent regeneration, the Master locked himself inside the Doctor's TARDIS and, once he regenerated into a new body , hijacked the ship and escaped, leaving the Doctor, Jack and Martha to be killed by the Futurekind at the end of the universe. The Doctor was able to fix Jack's vortex manipulator which had been burnt out when Jack had escaped from Satellite Five , and used it to escape the Futurekind and travel back to He framed them for terrorism and planted explosives in Martha's flat, forcing the Doctor, Martha and Jack to go on the run. He also made sure they remained powerless by sending Torchwood Three to the Himalayas and captured Martha's family, after he had tricked Martha's mother into helping him entrap the Doctor.
After failing to use a perception filter to foil the Master's plot, the Master summoned the Toclafane , whom he ordered to assassinate US President Arthur Winters , attack the Earth, and decimate the population. He then killed Jack and aged the Doctor into a frail old man with his laser screwdriver as he tried to reason with his nemesis. TV : The Sound of Drums As the Toclafane began slaughtering the population, the Doctor sent Martha away with Jack's vortex manipulator after whispering his plan to stop the Master into her ear.
Being kept prisoner aboard the Valiant for a year , the Doctor, Jack and the Jones family witnessed the Master and the Toclafane devastate Earth's civilisations and reduce the human race to camps of survivors, and suffered at his hands themselves, while the Doctor realised that the Toclafane were the humans he had encountered at the end of the universe, and began to telepathically hack into the Archangel Network. After Martha returned to the UK, the Doctor was further aged into a diminutive body by the Master as a warning to Martha. When Martha allowed herself to be taken to the Master for execution, she and the Doctor revealed their plan; using the Archangel Network, the Doctor harnessed the psychic energy of humanity's hope, as Martha had spent a year travelling the world telling humanity about his importance to them, regaining his youthful appearance in the process.
He then forgave the Master for everything he did, inflicting a blow to the Master's ego. On the Doctor's orders, Jack destroyed the paradox machine keeping the Toclafane in the present, undoing the entire year; Earth was restored as time resumed for everyone else right after the President was killed, but those on the Valiant retained their memories of the year due to being at the "eye of the storm". Urging the Jones' against descending to his level for revenge, the Doctor planned to imprison the Master in the TARDIS, but Lucy Saxon , the Master's human wife, shot him, and the Master refused to regenerate as he couldn't bear to spend the rest of his life under the Doctor's care, and gleefully died in the Doctor's arms, devastating him.
TV : Last of the Time Lords. Repairing the TARDIS, but forgetting to put his shields back up, TV : Time Crash the Doctor prepared to depart with Martha, but found she also wished to leave him to help her family recover from the year-long ordeal they had suffered, and also told him she was in love with him, but knew he'd never return her feelings. However, she gave him her upgraded mobile phone so that she could call him if trouble arose.
The Doctor examines his past incarnation's bald spot. Immediately after Martha left, the Doctor crashed his TARDIS into that of his fifth incarnation's , which put the universe in danger of being sucked into a Belgium-sized black hole. However, the Doctor used his memory of the event from his fifth incarnation's viewpoint to create a supernova at exactly the same moment the black hole appeared.
When the ship's owner, Max Capricorn , had a meteor shower purposely crash into the Titanic so that it would crash on Earth and wipe out six billion humans, the Doctor took command of his surviving friends, and an arrogant businessman named Rickston Slade , and tried to lead them to safety. However, Morvin died, and Foon and Bannakaffalatta gave their lives to save the others. Whilst his party of three survivors reached the flight deck, the Doctor was taken prisoner by Max and was nearly killed by the Heavenly Host on Max's orders. He was saved by Astrid, who lifted Max, with a forklift, taking him with her into the Titanic 's nuclear storm drive.
With Max dead, the Hosts recognised the Doctor as the new authority and took him to the steering wheel, where he, alongside Midshipman Alonso Frame , stopped the Titanic from crashing into Buckingham Palace. Using Astrid's teleport bracelet, the Doctor managed to bring Astrid back, but only as a partially cohensive form. Devastated, he kissed her goodbye and allowed her atoms to scatter into space to see the universe. The Doctor then went to Earth with Mr. The Doctor rejected Copper's request to travel with him, though Copper had accidentally brought more than enough credits to live comfortably on Earth.
After Copper left to start a new life on Earth, the Doctor set out on his own. TV : Voyage of the Damned. Travelling on his own again, the Doctor recommended Martha Jones for a job at UNIT, as a way of thanking her for everything she had done for him. Detecting an unstable space-time manipulator which disturbed the very existence of the universe, the Doctor used the TARDIS to pursue it in a race through time and space against the Daleks , Judoon or Slitheen , whom each wished to acquire it. Ultimately, however, after chasing it through from the Time Vortex to New Earth , the lunar surface , and the London Blitz , the Doctor finally caught the space-time manipulator back in the Time Vortex before destroying it.
When an ancient alien parasite inhabited his mind, the Doctor lost his memory once again and took up residency in a boarding house owned by the Manns family in Working with Robert Mann , the Doctor discovered the parasite had inhabited the oak tree in the village and sucked it into the time vortex, regaining his memory and control over his mind. After this, he had dinner with the Manns and the local villagers. He discovered a sonic screwdriver hanging from the tree and a note for him with the screwdriver, which thanked him for saving the family's life on Christmases in the next nine decades.
With this, he travelled to every Christmas between and , protecting the Wake family. As time passed, the Doctor grew closer to Tom, his wife Alice and their children and grandchildren.
Eventually, the Doctor and Tom reached Christmas and discovered it was Tom who left the note for the Doctor, instructing him to protect his descendants. The Doctor talks to the Extron. The Doctor went on the trail of the Extron , a galactic criminal, after the alien parasite kidnapped Violet Hopley , a nine-year-old girl. He located the Extron on the desolated planet, Onla-toch in the Dogron system , which the Extron devastated years previously.
After re-capturing the Extron, the Doctor returned Violet to her parents on Earth. Intending to brush up on his language skills, the Doctor's lesson was cut short when he became trapped in the News Factory, a virtual world of crystalline matrix populated by journalists, including married couple Ray and Boudica Royce , whom the Doctor allied with to destroy the aggressive SubEds and the News Factory itself by distrupting the crystalline matrix. Landing in a cavern next to a pool of superheated water, the Doctor came under attack from flying aliens called Shrikes.
He was rescued by a youngster called Kaze , who led him to a village and the villager's leader, Genji , who invited him to the Ceremony of Choosing, when warriors to defend the village against the Shrike were selected. After the ceremony, the Doctor and the rejected group were thrown from a cliff and came across a crashed spaceship which had used up all its energy shielding itself from the Shrikes. The Doctor joined him on his quest and, after battling giant scorpians and escaping various traps, he discovered a group of humans had been turned into gorillas by the kings centuries ago.
Finding and sealing the kings tomb, the Doctor left Mason to lead a revolution on Skarab. The Doctor was summoned to 19th century China by an old acquaintance, Chan Chiu , and learnt that immortal spirits were operating at the temple of Qingyange. Taking Li , Chan's nephew, to investigate, the Doctor found the spirits under the command of a stone monkey and his governor. Taken prisoner, he challenged the stone monkey for the future of Earth: they both had to defeat a dragon to seal their power over Earth.
The Doctor won the challenge, defeated the dragon and drove the stone monkey and his spirits away from Earth. Leaving, the Doctor travelled to the future and visited Li in his eighties, as he was telling his grandchildren about their adventure. The Doctor began tracing one half of a silicoid space-folder from Omikros, a device capable of folding space to allow instantaneous travel.
He found it in the possessions of a boy called Tom Blakeney. However, Tom's dog Sammy found the other half of the device, opening a portal for a being called Ramadra of the Omikron invasion force to take over and transform him into a tall wolf-like alien. Ramadra connected the two halves, allowing the Omikron invasion force to flood through to Earth. The Doctor used his sonic screwdriver to temporarily reverse the fold between Omikron and Earth, closing the rift before all of the invasion force could pass through.
Pursued by the force already on Earth, the Doctor and Tom seized the recovering space-folder from Ramadra. Ramadra overpowered the Doctor, Tom appealed to his little dog Sammy, lost in Ramadra.
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The Doctor distracted him by throwing a stick that Ramadra chased after, allowing the Doctor time to separate the two halves of the space-folder, sending the force back to Omikron and reverting Sammy back to the form of a dog. The Doctor stumbled onto Majenta Pryce 's operation in the Hotel Historia , a chain of time-travelling hotels that had been destroyed in the Last Great Time War, while confronting the Graxnix in 41st century London and used the faulty tech to travel back to the hotel.
The Graxnix followed the Doctor and started to kill people at the hotel. Majenta quickly decided to leave with her bills unpaid, but the Doctor prevented her escape. He used her time travel tech to imprison the Graxnix outside time, then ensured she was taken to debtors' jail. While searching for Sontaran grenades in , the Doctor bumped into his old friend Winston Churchill. After finding the corpse of Dr. He was saved by Rachel Barlow and allied with her to unmask a sabotuer who was distrupting the team's work.
After an attempt was made on their lives, the Doctor and Rachel discovered Jennifer Arden , a medical officer, was responsible due to her disagreement with the methods of the team's leader, Mick Hogan. When Jennifer infected herself whilst fighting with Hogan, the Doctor used samples collected by Kaleb Loss to cure her. In Switzerland in , the Doctor found a giant creature called Zzazik was responsible for a storm and trapped it in sparks of electricity. After this, the Doctor re-encountered Mary Shelley , who had been knocked unconscious by the sparks of electricity.
However, he left without revealing his identity, instead inspiring her to write Frankenstein. Tracking a Sea-Rah that had fallen through a hole in time, the Doctor ended up on a beach in England , where he saved a young boy called Lewis from the Sea-Rah. Visiting the Vienna State Opera, the Doctor found the great tenor, Anton Mordillo , was actually a member of the Thieves' Guild of Kardol, a group of alien con-artists wanted in seven star systems, but allowed him to continue his opera career. The Doctor and Donna witness the departure of the Adipose.
TV : Partners in Crime. While investigating Adipose Industries , the Doctor was reunited with Donna Noble , who had spent months searching for him as she had come to regret rejecting his offer to travel with him. With Donna's help, he used two Adipose Industries pendants to prevent a million Londoners from being killed and their organs and skeletons converted into Adipose babies.
The Doctor tried to save the life of Matron Cofelia , the foster mother to the few thousand Adipose that made it through before the birthing stopped, but the Adiposian First Family 's ship dropped her as it took aboard the incomplete harvest of Adipose, killing her. Deciding to take Donna on as a companion, the Doctor and Donna were both quick to rule out the possibility of a romantic involvement, making their companionship dynamically different from those of Rose and Martha. He flew the TARDIS to where her grandfather, Wilfred Mott , was looking at the stars through his telescope, waving to him along with Donna before heading off into the stars.
For her first trip in time, the Doctor accidentally took Donna to 79 Pompeii , where they discovered Mount Vesuvius was on the verge of eruption. Initially determined to escape to avoid tampering with the fixed point in time , the TARDIS was sold to the marble merchant Lobus Caecilius before the Doctor could return to it. Despite trying to leave when he reunited with it, the Doctor took an interest in the stone circuits the augur Lucius Petrus Dextrus had designed for Caecilius to make.
The Doctor discovered Pyroviles were attempting to take over the Earth after losing their own world by converting humans into their own kind by using the circuits as an energy converter. Having the choice between the death of the entire world or of the thousands in Pompeii, the Doctor made Vesuvius erupt, with Donna's help and support.
Per Donna's request, the Doctor saved Caecilius and his family, becoming their household gods. TV : The Fires of Pompeii. Upon finding a dying Ood, the Doctor was shocked to see it display red eyes; worried that he may run into an old foe , he decided to investigate. They soon discovered that Oods were born with secondary brains, which gave them individuality; however, they were lobotomised and had the translator put in its place. TV : Planet of the Ood. At Donna's request, the Doctor took her to Hollywood in , where they discovered Amelia Hubble , a creature capable of sucking thoughts and ideas out of the brain, had brought the town to a standstill.
After falling under Amelia's control himself, the Doctor stopped her from destroying the last talent in the city, Alan Crawford , and allowed her to draw creative plasma energy from the internet, saving the celebrities she already claimed and restoring Hollywood. The Doctor and Donna returned to Hollywood a year later to find that Amelia and Alan had got married.
Soon after, the Doctor and Donna visited a dairy farm in and defeated turbine-shaped plant creatures. The Doctor and Donna stopped the anti-robot Cult of Shining Darkness from carrying out their plans, but at the cost of the cultists being caught in an explosion. The Doctor encounters Sontarans. TV : The Sontaran Stratagem.
After finding and freeing the real Martha, the Doctor used an atmospheric converter , built by the students at Rattigan's school for gifted children, to ignite the atmosphere, destroying the gas. The Sontarans' next plan was to simply conquer Earth. Rattigan, having been betrayed by the Sontarans, sacrificed his life to destroy the flagship with the converter, swapping places with the Doctor at the last minute. Initially critical of the girl due to her predilection for violence and reminded of the loss of his family, the Doctor came to feel for his daughter after much persuasion and help from Donna.
After the Doctor activated the Source , a terraforming device that had become a subject of mythology, Messaline became inhabitable and the war between humans and Hath on the planet ended. Heartbroken, the Doctor was tempted to execute the detained general, but overcame the urge, and used his resistance in order to help found a new society on the planet. TV : The Doctor's Daughter. The Doctor searches for Charlemagne. TV : The Unicorn and the Wasp. Deep in the Ardennes, the Doctor rescued Charlemagne from an insane computer.
Working with Agatha Christie , the Doctor became embedded with a murder mystery at Eddison Manor in Donna threw the gem into the lake, drowning Golightly, who went after it; the link damaged Agatha's short-term memory. The Doctor dropped her off at the Harrogate Hotel. He explained to Donna that Ms. Marple and Murder on the Orient Express were written because she gave Agatha the ideas, which her subconscious remembered.
Whilst dealing with a small dinosaur situation, the Doctor found the time to give William Shakespeare a hand writing The Tempest. When he left, one of the robots supposedly attacked Brian. The Doctor was concerned when no one was fanatic about the new tablet computer, which he thought was weird for humanity.
He thought that Jill Meadows was the finest mind in IT of that age. After the deaths of Brian and Lukas , he was determined to solve the problem before more deaths occurred. He realised that exposure to some outside influence was causing this as Bex and Donna weren't effected because they had been travelling. He shut off his higher brain function so that he could work. He managed to get to their base to help with Donna's plans. He reversed the Koggnossenti signal and defeated them by making them stupid. In Scunthorpe, the Doctor and Donna encountered a robot duplicate of Martha Jones, who had been created by one of the Doctor's enemies to entrap him.
However, the Doctor reprogrammed her and left the robot to live a peaceful life on an alien world. At a performance by the thief Fergus Antelect , the Doctor used the telepathic abilities of Antelect's Ood, Ood Delta , to manipulate the minds of the audience into thinking he had confessed to the crimes. Delta told Special Agent Ratner that though it was true that Antelect had not committed theft through manipulating chronometers, he was guilty of thirty-seven counts of theft, ninety-two counts of misleading the public through illegal telepathic manipulation, and one hundred and thirteen counts of cruelty to a sentient life form — namely Ood Delta.
Delta projected memories of what actually happened at every one of Antelect's performances into the minds of the people in the room. The Doctor advised Ratner to check the security videos for the shows Antelect performed at, and Antelect was arrested. The Doctor next took Donna to a leisure planet called Splendorosa , where they visited a floating city called Coral. Intrigued by the city, the Doctor went undercover at GeoCorp, the company responsible for the city's position in the sky.
He came into conflict with the company's CEO, Volsairius Trefgar , after he and Donna uncovered a plot to "steal" Splendorosa by Trefgar and the war-like Sarriflex , who intended to transport the planet to a galaxy at war in order to use it as a weapon. The Doctor stopped them by disrupting their ships, bringing Coral City back to the land in the process.
However, he and Donna, instead of being honoured for saving the population from a deadly war, were chased out of the city by a lynch mob, as the population had grown fond of "living in the sky". Answering a distress signal in the Arctic Circle, the Doctor and Donna met Professor Renfrew and joined him and his team in their search for the corpses of ten miners. However, they were all killed by the Spanish flu. With his army dead, the Doctor returned Issaxyr to Mars to help rebuild the Ice Warrior civilisation.
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